VERA-C (Vortex Encounter Risk Assessment for curved Vortices)
VERA-C is a research project that
investigates vortex encounters with curved vortices. It is funded by
the German Research Foundation.
In the 1970s, the ICAO introduced vortex related
separation minima to prevent severe vortex encounters. These
separation requirements have proven to be safe, buth are also
considered conservative. They limit airport capacities and are
becoming a limiting factor for future air traffic growth. The impact
of a separtion minima revision are assess via risk analysis that is
based on fast-time Monte Carlo simulations.
Existing simulation models for risk assessment model vortex wakes as straight lines. In reality, vortex wakes deform quickly, break up and form to so called vortex rings. Vortex deformation is mainly triggered by atmospheric turbulence and by a phenomenon referred to as Crow-instability.
Objectives and Methods
- Stadien der Wirbelkrümmung
- © TUB
The objective of VERA-C is to analyze the impact
of vortex distortion on vortex encounter severity by means of risk
analysis. The strength of a vortex encounter, specifically vortex
induced upsets of aircraft attitude and flight path, is mainly
influenced by vortex circulation and encounter geometry. Initial
studies show that vortex deformation also has some affect on the
induced disturbance. Depending on the level of distortion, the
encountering aircraft upset may degrade compared to an encounter with
As part of VERA-C, analytical models of curved vortices will be set up and implemeted in the departments research flight simulator SEPHIR. Simulator test with airline pilots will provide a data base for the development of vortex encounter pilot control models and for models that describe the pilots severity assessment. These models will then be integrated in a fast-time simulation environment to perform risk analysis based on large numbers (~100.000) of simulated encounters. Sensitivity studies and worst-case analysis will be used to assess the impact of vortex distortion on encounter severity.
||Development and implemetation of analytical, parametric models of
curved vortices for real and fast-time simulation.
||Piloted vortex encounter simulations during approach with airline
pilots in the SEPHIR research flight simulator.
||Data Analysis and Model Development
||Analysis of the simulator test data and develpment of models
forthe pilot's control behaviour and severity assessment.
||Development of Monte-Carlo fast-time simulation models and
sensitivity studies and risk analysis for encounters with curved
||Documentation of vortex models, simulator test campaign,
Monte-Carlo simulations and overall project results.
- Assessment of Wake Vortex Safety (S-WAKE), funded by the European Commission as part of the 5. FrameWork Program (FP5)
- CREDOS (Cross Wind Reduced Separation for Departure Operations), funded by the European Commission as part of the 6. FrameWork Program (FP6)
- WakeNet3-Europe, funded by the European Commission as part of the 7. FrameWork Program (FP7)
ContactDipl.-Ing. David Bieniek
+49 (0)30 314-22305
e-mail query 
- CREDOS - Projektseite 
- CREDOS - Background Information 
- WakeNet 
- WakeNet2 - Europe 
- WakeNet3 - Europe